Alfyorova Y., Chichilanov V. The attribution experience in the restoration process
Alfyorova Yuliya – Chelyabinsk State Museum of Fine Arts, Deputy director for scientific work.
Chichilanov Viktor – rfine art restorer (3 category), Chelyabinsk State Museum of Fine Arts, Chief Curator of the Funds.
The work is devoted to a comprehensive study of the painting by S.V. Kaminski "Landscape with houses". The study is multidisciplinary in nature, allowing the authors to study the artifact thoroughly and acquire the most holistic view of it. The article considers the experience of a painting (1930s–1940s) attribution by an unknown artist during the restoration process. Particular attention is given to the study of the painting's condition before restoration as well as technology application of thread-by-thread mending method for large canvas tears by using PVB. Emphasis is given to stylistic, technical and technological research of the painting manner in order to establish the authorship. The article outlines the processes of artistic life in the era of industrialization, provides general information about the "Izobrigad’s troops (art brigade)" on the construction sites of the Ural-Kuzbass industrial complex during the first two five-year plans (1928–1932, 1933–1937), the legendary exhibition projects – "Ural-Kuzbass in Painting" (1935–1936) and "The Southern Urals in Painting" (1938).This regional issue is extended by information about the history of the Chelyabinsk State Museum of Fine Arts, along with the history of the social aspect of the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works’ construction. To the basis of restoration and research work, the attribution was reconsidered and modified to suit the results, a new work has been introduced into the scientific discourse of the context of Soviet art of the 1930s.
Restoration, attribution, thread-by-thread tear mending method, macro photography, x-ray imaging, Soviet art, S. Kaminsky, Magnitogorsk.
Becker A., Dubrovin M. Study of one of the types of stamps of the Moscow branch of the firm “C. Faberge”
Becker Albert – artist-restorer. The State Research Institute for Restoration, Department of Scientific Restoration of Metal Works, artist-restorer.
Dubrovin Mikhail – PhD in Technical Sciences, The State Research Institute for Restoration, leading research associate, Department of Scientific Restoration of Metal Works.
The purpose of the article is to show the possibilities of using the database, The State Research Institute for Restoration “Russian hallmarks on items of decorative and applied art made of precious metals”, both in scientific terms – the publication of hallmarks in good image quality and the possibility of conducting their comparative analysis, as well as introducing them into scientific circulation, and in practice – the identification of false brands. The article discusses the type of the early brand name of the Moscow branch of the firm “C. Faberge”. For the first time in a significant volume and high quality, images of this type of names are published, and for the first time fake names of this type and the false hallmarks of assay supervision accompanying them are published. Particular attention is paid to the comparative analysis of the images of stamps with each other, which makes it possible to distinguish genuine stamps from false ones, as well as the influence of the conditions of placement and existence of the brand on the state of its image. It is also emphasized that when conducting research on products of decorative and applied arts from precious metals, the need for comprehensive research of objects.
Database, Moscow branch of the firm “C. Faberge”, stamps-names, stamps of assay supervision, genuine stamps, false stamps, comparative analysis of stamps, articles of arts and crafts made of precious metals.
Ermakova N. The problem of removing collagen glue from museum textiles
Ermakova Nina – Candidate of Historical Sciences, The State Research Institute for Restoration., leading specialist Department of scientific restoration of applied arts.
The article deals with the problems of re-restoration of museum tissues reinforced by the method of adhesive duplication. The method proposed in the 1930s by N.N. Semenovich has preserved dozens of unique textile exhibits (banners, monuments of ancient Russian sewing, tapestries) in museum collections. Unfortunately, over time, the negative effect of glue on fabrics was revealed. Museum objects reinforced with adhesive duplication changed color, spots and stains formed on them, the fragility and fragility of textile fibers increased. To give the textile an expositional appearance, it was necessary to develop methods for removing restoration glue. Restorers have tested various methods of removing old adhesives, which include starch and gelatin (collagen). In recent decades, specialists have been researching methods of cleaning textile exhibits with the help of enzymes. If the removal of starch by α-amylase turned out to be safety, then testing of pure protease for collagen removal revealed its negative impact on the integrity of textile fibers, especially wool. Foreign experts have suggested several ways to not dangerous use protease (using a complex of enzymes; modification of the protease to increase its molecular weight). The development of methodological recommendations requires studying the effect of these methods on the mechanical and optical characteristics of artificially aged textile samples with collagen glue applied to them.
Museum tissues, glue duplication, glue aging, clearing, collagen, enzymes, modified proteases.
Ippolitov S. Industrial design and architecture of the Republic of Kazakhstan: nationalization of the visual environment
Ippolitov Sergey – Doctor in Historical Sciences, Chief Researcher of the D.S. Likhachev Russian Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage; Russian State Academy of Intellectual Property; The State Research Institute for Restoration.
The state policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the public inquiry aimed at the revival and reception of the national cultural heritage of the Kazakh people have ensured an unprecedented flourishing of local design companies and private entrepreneurs working in the field of industrial design. Ethnic style in fashion and architecture required the education of their own design staff for light industry, jewelry, architecture, footwear and accessories production. Industrial design in Kazakhstan has found an important niche for itself: the embodiment of national motifs and traditions in modern production and construction. Kazakhstan's industrial design in the field of architecture has not yet led to the formation of large national design schools. Ethnic motives and national heritage of Kazakhstan are embodied in architectural projects by foreign – mainly Japanese – architects. At the same time, local firms are actively involved in the competition, mastering the market of furniture design, interior design of premises, urban environment, etc. Local researchers are fully aware of the dependence of Kazakhstan's production on the industrial design of other countries. Among the main problems hindering the development of national industrial design, experts call the low attention of the state to the development of the industry; stereotypes and disinterest of Kazakhstani commercial enterprises in cooperation with local designers; underdevelopment of the system of specialized vocational education. It is proposed to solve existing problems through the development of specialized education in universities and colleges, as well as through targeted support from the state, which should subsidize the development of industrial designers when launching new products by the local industry.
Kazakhstan, state cultural policy, creative industries, design, architecture, industrial design, cultural heritage.
Natsky M. Methods of obtaining sheet brass and production of thin-walled brass products in the XVIII – early XX century
Natsky Mikhail – The State Research Institute for Restoration, Department of Scientific Restoration of Metal Works, artist-restorer of the highest qualification.
The article examines the influence of methods of manufacturing blanks from sheet brass on the properties of the final products and their safety during long-term storage. An overview of the main directions of the use of sheet brass in historical development is given on the examples of technical devices and household items, works of art and crafts. The changes in technology that occurred in the considered and previous periods are shown, the reasons for such changes are given. Numerous disparate publications describing the technological processes of manufacturing blanks and objects from thin-sheet copper-zinc alloys – brass – in the XIII–XX centuries are used, the information from which in the article is arranged in a consistent presentation of production processes. The article allows you to form a complete picture of the basic methods of converting the initial workpiece into the final product and the types of alloys used. Close attention is paid to a detailed description of metal processing techniques, tools and equipment used, in order to assess the impact of production and technological factors on the metal structure at the end of the manufacturing process. The recommended bibliography helps to navigate the difference in the properties of the metal of the monument when choosing a scheme of restoration intervention. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that it is possible, based on external signs and the results of the analysis of the metal structure of the monument, to identify objects that need preventive and restoration work to prevent their destruction, which is possible even in museum storage conditions.
History, technology, tools, equipment, brass sheet, household items, arts and crafts, restoration.
Tskhai A. Restoration of bookbinding leather. The problem of materials selection
Tskhai Anna – The State Research Institute for Restoration, department of restoration of manuscripts and graphics, research associate.
This article talks about the problems that bookbinding restorers face when choosing materials for preserving bookbinding leather. One of the most difficult tasks of bookbinding restoration is to restore the elasticity and flexible of the original leather cover. The author points out that the choice of restoration (conservation) technique depends on the state of preservation of the leather cover, the peculiarities of the material itself and its treatment in the past, its use and storage conditions. Chemical reactions occurring in the material over time under the influence of external agents, lead to the destruction of the leather covering may not be reversible. In the article the basic reasons of destruction of leather are stated, the agents which render negative influence on its state of preservation are resulted. The study of mechanisms of leather destruction showed that the use of lubricants for its plasticization can have a negative impact on the state of preservation in the future. But even when softening compositions are used, it is not always possible to achieve a positive result. The author concludes that the use of combined methods for plasticizing is effective when working with leather which has lost its elastic properties in the process of being in the book. Such a technique, including remote moistening of the leather and treatment with lubricants, was used for the restoration of the leather binding of a 15th century book which was severely damaged in the course of its life. At present the Department of Scientific Restoration of Manuscripts of the State Research Institute for Restoration is working on the study of the possibility of using lecithin for leather restoration. The peculiarities of lecithin structure make it a good moisturizing surface-active material. It is known that in the late 80's of the 20th century lecithin restored the blistered leather of a 17th century carriage.
Related material, restoration, conservation, technique, binding, leather, plastification, destruction, aging, dampening, greasing.