#3 2023



Ippolitov S. Belarusian cinema: Cultural heritage as a factor of sovereignty

Ippolitov Sergey – Doctor in Historical Sciences, Chief Researcher of Likhachev Russian Research Institute for of Cultural and Natural Heritage; RSAIP; The State Research Institute for Restoration
E-mail: nivestnik@yandex.ru

The key to the successful development of Belarusian film production and film distribution is still the leading role of the state as the main customer and investor of cinematographic projects. Such a situation, on the one hand, provides the industry with a guaranteed state order, determining its stability in a market economy and acute external competition. On the other hand, researchers and market professionals note the lack of flexibility of the industry and the consideration of film production tastes and changing interests of the Belarusian audience. The use of cinematography as the most effective tool of the national creative industries, as a propaganda resource in order to destabilize the socio-political life of the country, can be considered proven. Such goals are achieved by creating pseudo-documentary films about domestic political events in the republic. The video sequence, editing and lexical techniques used by the authors of these films are often extremist in nature, with the aim of inciting civil conflict. The Belarusian society and the state still manage to successfully resist external information aggression. One of the mental pillars of the Belarusian cinema was and remains films about the Great Patriotic War as a reflection and embodiment by artistic means of the national memory of the people. Films about the war have become and continue to remain an important part of the intangible cultural heritage of the Belarusian people, influencing the preservation of social stability. Currently, there is a dependence of the Belarusian film market on the creative sector of the Russian Federation. This dependence manifests itself at all stages of the film production cycle: from the acquisition of rights to rent foreign films to their dubbing, copying and advertising. The common linguistic and cultural space of the two friendly countries creates a unique window of opportunity for Belarusian film distribution companies: to purchase films in Russia that have already passed all stages of complex technological and legal preparation, thus reducing costly logistics.

Republic of Belarus, creative industries, cinematography, cultural heritage, film distribution, information aggression, state cultural policy

Kiryanova O. Presentation of artistic heritage in a private museum

Kiryanova Olga – Likhachev Russian Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage, Senior Researcher at the Center for Museum Policy
E-mail: psk-ok@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the presentation of artistic heritage in a private collection, using the example of the Museum of Folk Art in Rostov Veliky, Yaroslavl region. The Folk Art Museum was established in 2021 and is an important object that forms the urban cultural environment, is included in the tourist routes that run along the “Golden Ring”. The exhibition presents samples of traditional Russian art painting and wood carving, copper casting and embroidery. The objects of peasant life and interior, tools, elements of the exterior decor of rural wooden houses, as well as icons, made and decorated by amateur craftsmen, come from the personal collection of Yaroslavl collector A.V. Ilyin. The main part of the exhibits dates from the XVII – XX centuries and reflects the stylistic diversity and characteristic regional features of folk art of Central Russia, Siberia, the Volga region and the Russian North. As the author shows, in the case of a private art museum, the structure and design of the exhibition space, the selection and placement of exhibits, museum texts, museum communication are directly influenced by the personality of the founder, the level of his historical, cultural, art criticism competence, ethical and aesthetic preferences. In this regard, the presentation of the artistic heritage in a private museum should be considered not only as a way to popularize fine art, but also as a form of creative self-expression of the expositor, his message to the outside world based on personal experience. This approach enriches the museum narrative, helps to identify new semantic connections between the objects in the exhibition, which, ultimately, will allow the visitor to get a more detailed idea of the artistic heritage.

Museum, private museum, collecting, artistic heritage, folk art, collector A.V. Ilyin, museification of folk art monuments, folk art museum.

Kotelnikov P., Kurakov S., Morozov V. Possibilities of additive technologies in recovering lost elements for metal objects restoration

Kotelnikov Pavel – artist-restorer of the highest category of metal works, The State Research Institute for Restoration, head of the department of scientific restoration of metal works
E-mail: 113metal@gmail.com

Kurakov Sergey – Researcher engineer, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Engineer I cat. of Museum
E-mail: kurakov@bmstu.ru

Morozov Vyacheslav – candidate of technical Sciences, associate professor, Development engineer, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Lecturer of the department «Foundry technologies»
E-mail: vyach-morozov@yandex.ru

This article describes the experience of using modern additive technologies on the example of restoring a lost fragment for a museum cabinet sculpture. Additive manufacturing and its synonym “3D printing” are new methods for the production of parts based not on the removal of material as traditional (subtractive) technologies, for example, machining, but on layer-by-layer manufacturing, “growing” a product according to a three-dimensional model obtained in the system computer-aided design (CAD), by adding material in the form of plastic, ceramic, metal powders and their bonding by thermal, diffusion or adhesive methods. Questions about the advantages of introducing 3D printing in addition to or as a replacement for conventional methods for obtaining molds for casting lost elements are considered and the possibilities of using digital 3D devices in the restoration are shown. The authors analyzed existing materials (plastics and polymers) in order to use them as master models for subsequent casting. The article is intended for a wide range of technical specialists, art restorers, museum staff, students and pupils of specialized educational schools. The proposed material is published for the first time.

Additive technologies, 3D printing, master model, lost plastic casting burnout process, burning conditions, mold heating mode, ash content of plastic.

Malachevskaya E., Gordyushina V., Ivanova A. About the restoration of museum objects from unburned clay

Malachevskaya Elena – The State Research Institute for Restoration, chief of the Laboratory of Chemical and Technological Research
E-mail: elemal34@mail.ru

Gordyushina Valentina – The State Research Institute for Restoration, senior researcher of Laboratory of Chemical and Technological Research

Ivanova Anastasia – The State Research Institute for Restoration, junior researcher of Laboratory of Chemical and Technological Research
E-mail: iva_stasiya@mail.ru

The article deals with the problems of conservation of artifacts made from unbaked clay. The reasons causing the destruction of such objects are described. A brief history of the search for a suitable reinforcing composition for the preservation of loess artifacts and the result of the choice of these materials by the largest museums with such collections is given. The work carried out in the chemical-technological laboratory (The State Research Institute for Restoration) to find the optimal material for strengthening such items is outlined. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-1500) was taken as the basis of the strengthening composition, as the volume that penetrates most deeply and evenly into the loess layer. To increase the strength of PEG-1500, the processes of its modification with various polymers were carried out: methylcellulose, acrylic copolymer, and polyvinyl butyral. Fragments of painting on a loess base from the excavations of Central Asia were used as model samples. The samples were determined by the depth of impregnation, change in hardness, change in color. As a result of the work, two reinforcing compositions based on PEG-1500 were selected: with an acrylic copolymer and polyvinyl butyral. They were used for samples of varying degrees of destruction. Cases of strengthening loess volumes with and without a paint layer are considered. A technique for cleaning samples with different degrees of density has been worked out. A table is given of the penetration depth and strengthening action of the consolidant, depending on the strength of the clay base and the presence of a paint layer.

Unbaked clay, reinforcing composition, conservation, polyethylene glycol, methylcellulose, acrylate, polyvinyl butyral.

Nikolaev K. About attribution of V. Shukhaev's painting “Wheat Buyer” (from the cycle “Morocco”). 1960–1961

Nikolaev Kirill – The State Research Institute for Restoration, Head of the Scientific Expertise Department
E-mail: kirill.pochta@mail.ru

The material for the article was the results of an expert study of one painting. The study of the canvas of the famous Russian and Soviet artist V.I. Shukhaev reveals interesting aspects of his late work related to impressions from his trip to Morocco in 1932. A series of paintings on this topic was written by Shukhaev in 1960–1961. The studied composition is included in this cycle of paintings that were originally shown at the 1962 exhibition in Tbilisi in the halls of the State Art Gallery of Georgia. Many of them then went to various Russian museums, and some of them ended up in private collections and the location of some works is now unknown. In this regard, the question of attribution of these works by Shukhaev remains relevant. Also important is the problem of identifying the artist's authentic works in connection with cases of falsification of his original works. Thus, the conducted research made it possible to identify another unique work of V.I. Shukhaev and introduce it into the context of Soviet fine art of the early 1960s. The study of Shukhaev's late work from the point of view of an integrated approach has not yet been undertaken. This study is an attempt at a purposeful expert examination of Shukhaev's late painting with the involvement of literary sources, documentary materials, including the memoirs of the artist and his widow. The information about the specifics of the technical and technological techniques of the artist is of the greatest interest. This publication may push researchers of V.I. Shukhaev's creativity to a deeper analysis of his works performed during the late 1940s – 1960s.

V.I. Shukhaev, attribution, expertise, artwork, painting technique, art history, moroccan series of paintings.

Pavlova I. The Plate Game

Pavlova Irina – The National Library of Russia, the Federal Document Conservation Center, the Department of document conservation, section of restoration, leading art-restorer
E-mail: Arsenal2012@yandex.ru

The current Paper deals with one, presumably poorly explored, area of psychology – mind of the restorer of handwritten and printed objects. Concentration on technical problems of manual restoration – is a very difficult mental process, which, undoubtedly, has a direct connection with brain growth level. Invented by the author of the paper The Plate Game, where depicted separated pieces are used as Figures filled with certain intellectual content, can help in making correct decisions. Its central target: selection of right “open” or “close” information by virtual moving of Figures on the game board. There are two Game Levels. For the 1-st Level elementary “material” copperplates and for the 2-nd Level complex “material” copperplates are sorted out. The pieces number should vary from 6 to 8, with significant free space between them. Wide range of treatises, manuals, encyclopedias and ouvrages [albums of copperplates] printed in the XVIIIth century on the territory of Sacrum Imperium Romanum Nationis Teutonicae, Royaume de France and Kingdom of Great Britain, is the most attractive resource for copper plates. Text of the Paper contains detailed description of the Game: its rules, mechanical parts and process. After the Game session two types of information obtained on each Level are detected: General (with one central Idea) and Detailed (with one primary Idea and several secondary ideas). An attempt is made to fix mind activity during the Game. Draft under the title “Relocation of selected Figure into the Area of approved resolution of manual restoration technical problem” is drawn. Definite “practical” significance of the Paper should be underlined. The Plate Game allows to acquire different psychological skills (such as non-ego approach to existing dilemma), which may be productive in professional and private life of the restorer of handwritten and printed objects.

Manual restoration, psychology, restorer’s mind, Europe, XVIIIth century, copper plates, invention, Game.

Ravich I., Natsky M., Mikhailova A., Becker A. About the possibility of annealing to relieve internal stresses in gilded brass products made of sheet brass by deformation

Ravich Irina – Dr. Ph. D., The State Research Institute for Restoration, Department of Scientific Restoration of Metal Works, leading researcher
E-mail: info@gosniir.ru

Natsky Mikhail –artist-restorer of the highest qualification, The State Research Institute for Restoration, Department of Scientific Restoration of Metal Works, artist-restorer
E-mail: info@gosniir.ru

Mikhailova Anna – The State Research Institute for Restoration, Department of Scientific Restoration of Metal Works, research engineer

Becker Albert – artist-restorer of the third qualification, The State Research Institute for Restoration, Department of Scientific Restoration of Metal Works, artist-restorer
E-mail: info@gosniir.ru

The article examines the possibility of annealing to relieve internal stresses in the objects of the collection of gilded church utensils made of sheet brass using cold deformation. The composition of products and coatings, their manufacturing technology, and the level of internal stresses were determined on the samples taken from them using x-ray fluorescence method, scanning electron microscopy, metallography and microhardness measurements. It was found that the objects were made of brass, similar in composition to the L66 and L68 brands, their microstructure is distinguished by large recrystallized grains, along the boundaries of which intercrystalline cracks spread. The cause of such destruction is internal stresses, which also provoke intercrystalline corrosion, accompanied by the formation of copper oxide in the form of layers and individual inclusions at the grain boundaries. Gilding was applied to the products using the amalgam method, in two objects it was imitated using a yellow varnish located on a layer of amalgam silvering. The coatings are characterized by a small thickness, the values of which vary in different areas within 0.5–3 microns, metal breaks are noticeable in them, sometimes a fragmented structure is observed. Defects in coatings contribute to the development of corrosion, so they must be protected using reliable conservation methods. Annealing of samples in the temperature range of 300-500°C for 2 hours showed that internal stresses almost completely disappear at 500°C. Annealing at all temperatures used does not cause diffusion of gold and silver from the surface deep into the samples. Brass products with a gilded or silver-plated surface can be annealed to relieve internal stresses at a temperature of 500°C. The duration of annealing can be reduced from 2 hours to 15–30 minutes.

Church objects, brass, amalgam gilding, internal stresses, intercrystalline corrosion, annealing, electron microscopy, metallography, microhardness.