#1 2024



Bazanchuk G.A., Kotelnikov P.N., Kurakov S.V. Application of additive technologies in the restoration of polytechnic type objects with periodic tooth profile

Bazanchuk Galina A. – Honorary worker of higher professional education of Russian Federation, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, director of Museum
E-mail: bga@bmstu.ru

Kotelnikov Pavel N. – artist-restorer of the highest category of metal works, the State Research Institute for Restoration, head of the department of scientific restoration of metal works
E-mail: 113metal@gmail.com

Kurakov Sergey V. – Researcher engineer, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Engineer I cat. of Museum
E-mail: kurakov@bmstu.ru

The topic of restoring polytechnic exhibits is very relevant and in great demand by the community of scientific and technical museums, where, according to the results of current surveys of museum workers and their managers, the need for restoration of exhibition and archival funds is in first place. The article provides examples of restoring the lost parts of kinematic models from the historical system collection of the BMSTU Museum, issues related to measurements, manufacturing, selection of equipment and materials, and final installation of “grown” gear parts using additive technologies are considered. In the last 10 years, these processes have become widespread, and are still one of the most convenient and rapidly developing technologies for the production of parts and assemblies for the restoration of polytechnic objects. In the article, the authors highlight promising areas for using additive technology products in the museum space in the form of visual models, art objects, copies, duplicates, etc. The work of restoring the loss of polytechnic museum exhibits required high interdisciplinary interaction between various specialists, both technical and humanitarian fields of science, education and culture, and the authors believe that the experience shown in this article will be of interest to a wide range of readers. The proposed material is published for the first time.

Additive technologies in restoration, 3D printing, engineering, kinematic models of mechanisms, polytechnic museum exhibits, fused deposition modeling, CAD model.

Baranov V.V., Lavrentyeva E.V. The main methods of old believers' restoration and imitation of ancient icon painting in the 19th — early 20th centuries

Baranov Viktor V. – PhD in Art History, the Highest Qualification Restorer in Tempera Painting, the State Research Institute for Restoration, Leading Researcher of the Laboratory of Physicochemical Research
E-mail: trinity64@mail.ru

Lavrentyeva Elena V. – PhD in Art History, the State Research Institute for Restoration, Research fellow of the Tempera Painting Restoration Department
E-mail: Lavrentyeva_Elena@mail.ru

The article is devoted to the review of main techniques of Old Believers restoration and imitation of ancient icons in the 19th — early 20th centuries on the example of Mstyora and Nevyansk. The artistic heritage of these Russian icon-painting centers has been most actively researched in recent years at the State Research Institute for Restoration. The main emphasis is placed on elucidation the technical side of the activities of Old Believer artists, who were the first icon restorers in Russia. Firstly, the main methods of imitating antiquity in icons by the Mstyorichs are analyzed. The methods of obtaining four different types of artificial craquelure are described: 1) primer craquelure, 2) formed in the upper layers of paint and varnish, 3) drawn, 4) scratched with a sharp metal tool. Other methods of “aging” the restored areas of the image (paint splashing, mechanical incisions, covering icons with "old" olive oil, etc.) are reviewed on specific examples. The second part of the article describes the nature of Old Believers' restoration in Nevyansk. The conclusion is made about the opposite nature of this activity in the Ural workshops: the absence of the practice of imitating antiquity and aging of icons, as well as the tradition of complete renewing (repainting) of icons. In the mining and metallurgical Urals, the main activity of “restorers” was aimed at very delicate renovation (partial repainting in the tone of authentic colours) of previously created local Urals icons. It should be especially emphasized that this publication for the first time presents the results of microscopic research of a number of icon-painting works from private and museum collections, which underwent such "mending" in the workshops of the mentioned centers of Old Believers.

Old Believers, imitation of ancient icon painting, restoration, conservation, craquelure, icon counterfeits, Mstyora, Nevyansk, icon painting attribution.

Semenov M.A. Panorama of Jan Blickland "View of Moscow from the Vorobiovy gory": in the conserving of a single artwork

Semenov Michael A. – artist-restorer of graphic works of III category, the State Hermitage Museum, Department of scientific restoration and conservation, Laboratory for scientific restoration of graphic works, artist-restorer; 4rd year student of the Ilya Repin Saint-Petersburg Academy of Arts, faculty of History and Theory of arts
E-mail: lab_graphics@hermitage.ru ; misem2@mail.ru

The material tells about the conservation of a large-format graphic work "View of Moscow from The Vorobiovy Gory" (1707–1708), consisting of eleven sheets. Jan Blickland, creator, is one of the significant representatives of Peter’s engraving. While the panorama was being created, author`s activity was concentrated around the Kremlin Armory. The sheets form a panorama of the city, crowned with a baroque cartouche with clouds and allegorical compositions. The goal of the article is to show the process of preparation of the panorama for exposure. The work came into Laboratory with traces of storage in the album and numerous inscriptions from both sides of the hand sheets. The general unsatisfactory condition was characterized by heavy pollution, irregular discoloration and destruction of the paper. The further more advanced estimation of the technical condition of the engravings indicated the need for restoration activities. The main stages of restoration in the article are described with an emphasis on important technological processes, for example, discoloration removal and strengthening of the paper. All parts of the panorama are independent graphic works, while paying special attention to the previous way of sheet storage and their unified artistic “assignment”. After reaching the visual unity of all parts of the panorama the exposure became possible. All the sheets are prepared for mounting and placed in the safe storage.

Restoration, panorama, Jan Blickland, engravings, exhibiting, album, storage.

Frolova E.E. Conservation of drawings with a ruined paint layer. Consolidation methods

Frolova Elena E. – restorer of graphic works of the highest category, the State Research Institute for Restoration, head of the department of scientific restoration of manuscripts and graphics
E-mail: e.a.e.frrr.20100@yandex.ru

The article is devoted to the choice of a method for consolidation of the color layer of graphic works on paper and handwritten miniatures on vellum. Examples of research and restoration of specific monuments with ruined paint layer confirm the possibility of rejecting the use of synthetic consolidants in such cases. The problem of the necessity of repeated restoration, which is a consequence of damage caused by previous curing, is also touched upon. The comparison of the composition of the two adhesives confirms the probability of negative influence of modern adhesives on the structure of the paint layer of drawings and miniatures. In the first case, the properties of the material prepared in 1994 were determined. This was the SEV residue at the bottom of the flask, which remained as a result of the evaporation of the solution. In the second case, the films were made from a material prepared in the 2010s. The study of this material was possible due to the presence of unique samples labeled with the date of their preparation. The conducted work proves that the concept of "consolidation of the paint layer" in the restoration of illuminated manuscript monuments and graphic works should be detailed when drawing up a restoration program in each specific case; in practice, consolidation does not necessarily mean the use of a special consolidator. Secondary consolidation can be successfully carried out by weakening the effect of adhesives applied earlier.

Graphic works, colorful layer, ruined, the second restoration, consolidation, adhesives, consolidants, paint binder.

Tskhay A.A. Lecithin as a means of softening leather bindings

Tskhai Anna A. – a highly qualified restorer of archival and library materials, the State Research Institute for Restoration, department of restoration of manuscripts and graphics, research associate
E-mail: Tskhay_anna@mail.ru

Restoring old leather is one of the most difficult tasks facing restorers, especially when it comes to restoring leather bindings of manuscripts and books. This is not only due to the specific properties and chemical composition of the leather, but also because old books continue to be used to this day. The main goal of the work is to search for new materials and methods for restoring leather covers of old manuscript bindings, rare books, and incunabula. We have chosen lecithin as such a material. Experience in using phospholipids for the restoration of deteriorated oil paintings, DPI objects made of fabric and leather, suggests that they can be effectively used for the restoration of leather covers of bindings. The causes of the destruction of binding leather were studied, and methods for its restoration were described. Before starting the experimental part of the research, we familiarized ourselves with the physico-chemical properties of lecithin and its use in the field of restoration. To assess the effectiveness and stability over time of this material, we conducted tests on experimental samples of old leather. The work used materials from the research of employees of the Department of Restoration of Manuscripts and Graphics of the State Institute for Restoration, conducted during the restoration of leather bindings of manuscripts and books. We also used data obtained from studying the department's archives. We express special thanks to Tatiana B. Rogozina, a highly qualified binder restorer, for her consultation on the use of lecithin.

Book, leather, binding, restoration, lecithin, softening, moisturizing.